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The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called ... more

In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, depth of field (DOF) is the distance between the nearest and ... more

An ellipsoid is a closed quadric surface that is a three dimensional analogue of an ellipse.a, b, c.are called the semi-principal axes.They correspond to ... more

A pendulum is a mass that is attached to a pivot, from which it can swing freely. Pendulum consisting of an actual object allowed to rotate freely around a ... more

n atomic physics, the Rutherfordâ€“Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus. These orbits are ... more

Often during their use, heat exchangers collect a layer of fouling on the surface which, in addition to potentially contaminating a stream, reduces the ... more

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

In spherical trigonometry, the law of cosines (also called the cosine rule for sides) is a theorem relating the sides and angles of spherical triangles, ... more

In geometry, Napoleon’s theorem states that if equilateral triangles are constructed on the sides of any triangle, either all outward, or all inward, ... more

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